By Madeleine Kelly
The hot topic at every girl’s sleepover in high school; how many kids their going to have, at what age their going to have them, and what their names are going to be. Unfortunately family planning turns out much better in your imagination than it does in real life. The fight for access to sexual education and contraceptives makes it hard for women to control their bodies and lives. Living in a developed country we are lucky to have the minimal access that we have. Unfortunately those living in still developing countries are not as lucky.
In 2012, the United Nations declared access to contraception a “universal human right.” This was quite a step in allowing women to take control of their bodies. This declaration is by no means a law, it stands with no legal emphasis, but it opens doors to future legal movements towards much needed help. As of 2015 it was found that only 40% of married or in union women of childbearing age in developing countries were using some form of contraceptive (Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 1). Keep in mind this only pertains to the percent of society married or in union. Family Planning is so vital to this century, with our high abortion and unsafe abortion rates, infant mortality rates, skyrocketing fertility rates coinciding with the poverty levels in underdeveloped (and developed) countries, and economic turmoil for so many countries.
With abortion as controversial as ever, it should not even be considered as a type of contraceptive or family planning. However because of lack of accessibility here we are in 2016 still abusing abortions. An amazing example of how family planning, access and education on contraceptives can impact abortion rates is Europe, which holds both the highest and the lowest incidence rates of abortion. The lowest, 12 per 1,000 women, is in Western Europe, and the highest is in Eastern Europe, with a rate of 43 per 1,000. The difference between the two is that Eastern Europe has low contraceptive use and dependence on outdated methods like the withdrawal and rhythm method (Guttmacher Institute, 1). Countries outside of the US and Europe haven’t been as lucky with family planning.
In developing countries, abortion rates are high, but unsafe abortion rates are even higher. What the World Health Organization is calling, a “preventable pandemic,” unsafe abortions are the result of fear of childbirth but also fear of shame. Defined by the WHO as “abortions done by individuals without the requisite skills, or in environments below minimum medical standards, or both,” they claim 19-20 million abortions annually (World Health Organization, 1). This is nearly half of the 43 million global abortions that took place in 2008, according to the Guttmacher Institute (1). They also show that an estimated 68,000 women die annually world wide due to complications from unsafe abortions (1). These are complications that can easily be fixed, with more access to contraceptives and access to legal and available abortions when absolutely necessary.
Another issue with limited access to contraceptives is infant mortality. For those who decide to come to term with pregnancies, despite not being ready emotionally, physically, or financially for a child, put themselves and their newborn in a risky position. As of 2015, the top three countries with the highest infant mortality rates, Afghanistan, Mali, and Somalia, are all developing countries with roughly 10% of their infants dying. There are 36 countries losing more than 5% of their infants, all developing countries (Central Intelligence Agency, 1). These high death rates are correlated with high birth rates, correlated with a lack of control over birth.
The UNFPA goes as far as saying that family planning will boost the economy, stating that for every dollar invested in contraception leads to a reduction in the cost of pregnancy-related care by $1.47 (UNFPA, 1) They also comment on the annual GDP of growing countries, giving the example, “If adolescent girls in Brazil and India were able to wait until their early twenties to have children, the increased economic productivity would equal more than $3.5 billion and $7.7 billion, respectively” (UNFPA, 1). As you can see, family planning is as important, if not more important in still developing countries than in already developed countries. It is a public health issue that is in desperate need for more attention, with the ability to decrease need for abortion, decrease infant mortality and population problems, and potentially increase economic productivity, family planning needs to be of higher concern to nations with these problem areas.
Beadle, Amanda Peterson. “United Nations Declares Access To Contraception A ‘Universal Human Right’.” Center for American Progress Action Fund, 14 Nov. 2012. Web. <http://thinkprogress.org/health/2012/11/14/1189161/un-contraception-human-right/>.
“Facts on Induced Abortion Worldwide.” Facts on Induced Abortion Worldwide. Guttmacher Institute, Nov. 2015. Web. 23 Feb. 2016. http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/fb_IAW.html
“Family Planning/Contraception.” World Health Organization, May 2015. Web. <http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs351/en/>.
“Family Planning | UNFPA – United Nations Population Fund.” Family Planning | UNFPA – United Nations Population Fund. United Nations Population Fund, 20 Apr. 2015. Web. <http://www.unfpa.org/family-planning#>.
“Increased Contraceptive Use Worldwide.” Reproductive Health Matters. Department of Economic and Social Affairs 11.21, Integration of Sexual and Reproductive Health Services: A Health Sector Priority (2003): 198. Web. <http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/publications/pdf/family/trendsContraceptiveUse2015Report.pdf>.
“The World Fact-book: Country Comparisons: Infant Mortality.” Central Intelligence Agency, 2015. Web. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2091rank.html